Research Papers in APA FormatResearch evaluation tips
How to write a Literature Review
Writing for Psychology has a set of rules & guidelines that are agreed upon by the top organizations in the field. These guidelines are published in "style guides" and it is required that you use the conventions in these books if you want to do writing for Psychology which includes publishing in research journals. Most instructors require papers to conform to the APA style. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is frequently recommended for papers. This page describes basic formats for citing works within your paper and several of the common items included in cited literature (bibliographies and/or reference lists).
of your paper
* states a problemWhen references are cited within the narrative, use the guidelines in sections 3.94 - 3.103 of the Publication Manual. See "Quoting" towards the end of this page... for a quick reference.
When you write a paper for a psychology course, you are expected to use the format in this guide unless your instructor gives different requirements. For details about using APA style, see Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (4th ed.), also referred to as the "APA manual".
As student papers are not being prepared for publication, the Manual states that instructor preference always takes precedence over the Manual and that instructions to use the Publication Manual should always be accompanied by specific teacher instructions. Some professors prefer the "hanging indent" and others the "paragraph." See the following example:
The following examples show various cases in how a work might be cited:
Journal article, one author
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.Journal article, more than one author
Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., & Harlow, T. (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.Work discussed in a secondary source
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608.
N.B. Give the secondary source in the references list; in the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Seidenberg and McClelland's work is cited in Coltheart et al. and you did not read the original work, list the Coltheart et al. reference in the References. In the text, use the following citation:Magazine article, one author
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.Book
Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.An article or chapter of a book
O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York: Springer.A government publication
National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.A book or article with no author or editor named
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
N.B. For parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and underlining as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the two sources above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster's, 1993) and ("New Drug," 1993).A translated work and/or a republished work
Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York: Dover. (Original work published 1814)A review of a book, film, television program, etc.
Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control]. Contemporary Psychology, 38, 466-467.An entry in an encyclopedia
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.Anonymous
Post-tenure review. (1995). Academe, 84, 61-67.
Included here are APA citation exemplars for the files found on the WWW. As electronic publishing is quickly growing and changing, the recommendations on citation format are also developing. These examples are based on the original APA format guides and articles published on this topic. The basic forms mirror the analogous print resources (articles, books) but should include the publication medium (WWW address), the date you found it.
One important difference in citing WWW sources is that page numbers are not used in the body of a paper. Electronic articles are one file and therefore one page. Links to additional files are also each just one page. If the article is also in print form and a starting page number or inclusive page numbersis are used in a periodical index or on a webpage, that page number(s) is part of the citation on your literature cited page but not used in the body of your paper.
Electronically stored information is mutable. It is also ephemeral and may be here today and gone tomorrow, or it may move to another server at a new location. Take care to get the complete information needed for your citation. It may be several different files such as the journal title page and the article itself which may have several files.
N.B. Your instructor will probably require a copy of the complete source used if cited in your paper. Might as well turn it in with the research paper before you're asked to!
The basic style for web delivered citations is:
Author. Title of ElectronicWork. Date of access. www addressIndividual Electronic Work without author
Latin Phrases and Words Used in English. Retrieved December 10, 1999 from the World Wide Web: http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/classics/englatin.htmIndividual Electronic Work with author
Beard, Robert. A Web on On-line Dictionaries. Retrieved December 10, 1999 from the World Wide Web: http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/rbeard/diction.htmlPart of a Work
Definition of mutable. In Hypertext Webster Interface. Retrieved January 16, 1996 from the World Wide Web: http://c.gp.cs.cmu.edu: 5103/prog/webster?mutableJournal Article
Steele, K.M., Bass, K.E. & Crook, M.D. (1999). The mystery of the Mozart effect: failure to replicat. Psychological Science, 10 (4), 366(4). Retrieved September 8, 1999 from the World Wide Web: web7.infotrac.galegroup.com/itw/infomarkMagazine Article
Grochow, J. M. (1999, August). Productivity and the IT personnel shortage. PC Week. 23: 75. Retrieved September 8, 1999 from the World Wide Web: http://web6.infotrac.galegroup.com/itw/infomark/Newspaper Article
Boshart, R. (1999, May 19). GOP resumes tax-cut push. The Gazette, Retrieved from the World Wide Web September 8, 1999: http://www.gazetteonline.com/ialegis/1999/tax/99tx039.htmImage (art reproduction, photograph or other graphic)
Kaufman, S. (ca 1993). Japanese Crane in Snow. Retrieved November 10, 1999 from the World Wide Web: http://search.corbis.com/default.asp?i=10898330&vID=1&rID=101
Paraphrasing within the body of your text
To indicate short quotations (fewer than 40 words) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author, year, and specific page citation in the text, and include a complete reference in the reference list. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quotation but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text. Examples:
Place quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after closing punctuation mark. Example:
Format of Research Papers
Keep in mind that underlining and italics are equivalent. Choose one or the other form to use throughout your paper.